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Section 2 - The Nature of Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

The Nature of Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes - Section 2 of Organic Chemistry Notes is 18 pages in length (page 2-1 through page 2-18) and covers ALL you'll need to know about the following lecture/book topics:


SECTION 2 – The Nature of Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

2-1 -- Classification of Functional Groups
  · Alkanes
  · Alkenes
  · Alkynes
  · Alcohols
  · Ketones
  · Esters
2-2 -- Hydrocarbons
  · Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes)
  · Aromatic Hydrocarbons (benzene)
2-2 -- Alkanes (Unbranched, Branched, and Cyclic Alkanes)
  · Homologous Series
  · Constitutional (“Structural”) Isomers
2-4 -- Types of Carbon Atoms
  · Primary Carbons (1°)
  · Secondary Carbons (2°)
  · Tertiary Carbons (3°)
  · Quaternary Carbons (4°)
2-5 -- Various Types of Alkyl Groups (Branches, or Substituents)
2-7 -- Systematic Nomenclature of Alkanes (IUPAC)

  · Four Rules for Naming Alkanes (Rules 1-4)
  · How to Find the Parent Hydrocarbon (“Parent Chain” or “Main Chain”)
  · How to Number the Atoms in the Parent Chain
  · How to Identify and Number the Branches (“Substituents”)
  · How to Write the IUPAC Name of the Compound
2-11 -- Naming Complex Branches in Organic Compounds
2-12 -- Common Names (“non-IUPAC”) for Some Simple Alkyl Branches
2-13 -- Examples of Alkane Nomenclature
2-15 -- Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides (R-X)
2-15 -- Disubstituted Cycloalkanes

  · Stereoisomerism
  · Cis/Trans Isomers
2-16 -- Properties of Alkanes (5 Key Points)
  · Nonpolar (“Hydrophobic”) Properties of Alkanes
  · Boiling Point Trends
  · The Effects of Branching
  · Melting Point Trends
  · Combustion of Alkanes (Calorimetry and Product Analysis)

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